Indus Valley Civilization (2900 – 1700 BC) Important Notes

Indus Valley Civilization 

(2900 – 1700 BC)

▪ Indus valley civilization is older than chalcolithic culture but was far more developed
▪ Marked the beginning of Bronze age civilization

Sights of Indus Valley Civilization

Early (Pre Harappan)

  • Harappa (Pakistan, River Ravi)
  • Mohenjodaro (Pakistan, River Indus)
  • Chanhudaro (Pakistan, River Indus)
  • Sutkagendor (Pakistan)
  • Sukotada (Gujrat)
  • Lothal (Gujrat, River Bhogava)

Mature (Harappan)

  • Kalibangan
  • Kalibangan (Rajasthan, River Ghaggar)
  • Banawali
  • Banawali (Hissar, River Ghaggar)
  • Rakhigarhi
  • Rakhigarhi (Hissar, River Ghaggar)

Late Phase (Post Harappan)

  • Rakhigarhi
  • Dholavira
  • Dholavira (Kutch)
  • Dholavira
  • Bhagwanpura
  • Manda (Jammu),
  • Chandigarh,Shangol (Punjab),
  • Daulatpur,Mitthal (Haryana),
  • AlamgirpurHulas (West UP)

Developments in Indus Valley Civilization

▪ Citadel / Acropolis at cities for member of ruling class (west side) & brick houses below citadel in town for commoners
▪ Remarkable grid system of roads → Roads cutting at right angle to each other
▪ Large scale use of burnt bricks & total absence of stone buildings
▪ Remarkable underground drainage system connecting all houses & streets covered by bricks / stone slabs
▪ Agriculture technology was well developed (But no use of ploughshare) : Wheat, Rice, Barley, Peas etc. + Domesticated large scale of animals
▪ Cotton was 1st produced by Indus people hence Greeks called it Sindon which is derived from Sindh
▪ Harappan were 1st to produce silver in the world + wore gold, silver & beads Jewelry
▪ Practiced boat making, seal making, Bronze smith, Weavers etc.
▪ Granaries & seals show Harappan carried on considerable trade but only through Barter system
▪ No temples has been found at any of the site hence can be said that it was ruled by merchants not priests
▪ Worshiped Goddess Earth, Pipal Tree, Pashupati Mahadeva & Animals (Bull / Unicorn Rhino)
▪ 1st to invent the art of writing – Right to left – (Pictographic only → Not deciphered so far)
▪ Used weights for trade (Mostly in multiple of 16) & Bronze made marked sticks for measurements
▪ Were expert in Potter’s wheel & pottery making
▪ Their greatest artistic creation was ” Seals”
▪ Mostly limestone was used for sculptures.

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