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Ghaznavids - Mahmud of Gazni & Muhammad Ghori All Notes

Ghaznavids - Mahmud of Gazni & Muhammad Ghori

Ghaznavids (1000-1200 AD)

▪ Islam → Founded in Mecca by prophet muhammad (622 AD)
▪ 622 AD → Starting point of Muslim calender
▪ Later, Profet moved to Madina & this Muslim era was called Hijra
▪ Followers of prophet set up an empire known as Caliphate
▪ Umayyads & Abbasids were called Caliphs (Arabs)

Mahmud of Gazni

▪ Around 900 AD, Caliphate declined & Turkish established independent kingdoms
▪ Mahmud of Gazni is said to have made 17 raids to India, mainly aimed at rich temples & cities of North India
▪ North Indian frontier Hindu Shahi kingdom of Jayapala (Punjab to Kabul) was defeated in 1001 AD
▪ His successor Anandpala also got defeated in battle of Waihind (1008 AD).
▪ In battle of Waihind, Anandpala was supported by Rulers of Kannauj & Rajasthan; as a result Mahmud got his rule established over almost all over Punjab
Famous Poets Patronized by Mahmud of Gazni
  1. ▪ Firdausi → Wrote Shahnamah
  2. ▪ Alberuni → Wrote Kitab-i-Hind

Muhammad Ghori

▪ After death of Mahmud, Ghori succeeded to the throne of Ghazni
▪ In 1186, He attacked Punjab & captured it from “Khusro Malik”, annexing it to his dominions
▪ Realizing the urgency of situation, North Indian Hindu princes formed a confederacy under the command of Prithvi Raj Chauhan
▪ Prithvi raj chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori in Battle of Tarain, near Delhi in 1191
▪ Again, Muhammad Ghori gathered a vast army & sent message to Prithvi raj chauhan to be a Muslim & accept his supremacy but Chauhan rejected his terms.
▪ In 1192, in 2nd battle of Tarain , Prithvi raj Chauhan was captured & killed, marking the establishment of 1st Muslim kingdom rule over Ajmer in India
▪ Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghazni leaving his general Qutubuddin Aibak to make further conquests in India → Aibak captured Delhi & Meerut and in 1193
▪ Ghori invaded Jayachandra “Ruler of Kannauj” in battle of Chandwar or Ghardawala & annexed it, setting Turkish rule in North India

Delhi Sultanet

Muslim invasion in India resulted in establishment of Delhi Sultanet (1206-1526) which mainly consisted of 5 different dynastie Dynasty - Prominent Rulers
  • 1) Slave dynasty - Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultana, Balban
  • 2) Khilji dynasty - Jalaluddin Khalji, Alaunddin Khalji
  • 3) Tughlaq dynasty - Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad – Bin – Tughlaq, Firoz Tughlaq
  • 4) Sayyid dynasty - Khirz khan, Alam Shah
  • 5) Lodi dynasty - Bahlol lodi, Sikandar lodi, Ibrahim Lodi

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