Rashtrakutas & Imperial Cholas All Notes

Rashtrakutas & Imperial Cholas


Deccan + Karnataka → 975 AD
Mother Tounge → Kannad
Capital → Manyakhet
Great Kannad Poet → Pampa (Wrote Vikramasena Vijaya & Adi Purana)


▪ Founder of Rashtrakutas kingdom
▪ Defeated Pariharas annexed Malwa
▪ Defeated & Annexed Chalukyas

Krishana 1

▪ Annexed Chalukyas of Vengi (Eastern Chalukyas)
▪ Built Monolithic Ellora temple Kailasha temple → Dravidian Style


▪ Ruled for 64 Years → Follower of Jainism
▪ Chief Teacher → Jinasena (Wrote Parshavabudaya)
▪ Wrote 1st Kannada book → Kavirajmarga
▪ Built capital Malkhed (Manyakhet) to its zenith Krishana 3
▪ Last prominent Rashtrakuta ruler
▪ Built Krishaneshwara Temple at Rameshwaram
▪ After his death Rastrakutas power declined & Chalukya of kalyani took over

Administration of Rashtrakutas

▪ Empire was divided into several provinces called Rashtras under the control of Rashtrapati
▪ Rashtras were further divided into Districts called vishayas, goverened by Vishayapatis
▪ Next subdivision was Bukti (Consiting of 50 – 70 villages ) under charge of Bhogpatis
▪ Each village was headed by village headmen who in turn was helped by village elders called Grama Mahajana or Grama Mahattara
▪ Law & order was responsibility of Kosta – pala or Kotwal
▪ Hereditary Revenue Officer → Nav Gavundas or Desa Gramakutas


▪ Vaishnavism & Shaivism prominently flourished
▪ Jainism & Buddhism along with Muslims were welcomed & allowed to preach their faith
▪ Famous Temples → Kailash temple at Ellora, Krishaneshwara temple at Rameshwaram
▪ Famous Caves → Elephanta Caves at Mumbai

Imperial Cholas


▪ Founder of Chola Dynasty
▪ Capital → Tanjore
▪ Built Durga Temple at Tanjore

Rajaraja 1 (Shaivist)

▪ Defeated Cheras (Trivendrum), Pandayas & Annexed Northern Srilanka
▪ Conquered Maldieves & Chalukya of Kalyani (Who succeeded Rashtrakutas)
▪ Built Famous Rajeshwara/Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjore (Dravida Style) in 1010 AD Rajendra 1 (Shaivist)
▪ Defeated southern Srilanka & annexed whole Srilanka
▪ Moved north & Captured till Bengal defeating Mahipala 1; Assumed title of Gangaikonda chola
▪ Conquered Malay Peninsula & converted Bay of Bengal to Chola lake for trading purposes with China
▪ Found new capital Gangaikondacholapuram at Kaveri & Built famous Gangaikondachola Temple (Dravida style)


▪ Chola Empire was divided into Mandalams or provinces
▪ Mandalams were further divided into Valanadu or Nathus (Number of villages)
▪ Local self-government in villages with mainly two assemblies Ur & Sabha (or Mahasabha)
▪ Ur → General assembly of the village
▪ Mahasabha → Gathering of adult men in Brahamdeya villages called Agraharas

Culture & Religion

▪ Prevalent cast system as Brahamanas & Kshatriyas enjoyed powers
▪ Shaivism & Vaishnavism flourished & a number of temples & Mathas (educational centres) were built
▪ Shaivism saints were known as Nayanars & Vishnu saints as Alvars
▪ Famous Temples → Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur by Rajraja 1, Airavatesvara Temple at
Darasuram by Rajraja 2, Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram by Rajendra 1
Dravida was the main style of building temples viz.
▪ 5 -7 story building above Girbhagriha (Chief deity room) → Vimana Style
▪ Gopurams (Lofty gates)
▪ Mandap (pillars) with big hall for audiences & ceremonies
▪ Ceremonies performed by Devadasis (Women dedicated to God)
▪ Example → Kailashnath temple of Kanchipuram

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