How did the Indian National Congress evolve over time?

How did the Indian National Congress evolve over time?

The Indian National Congress (INC) has a long and complex history that has seen it evolve over time. Here are some key points:

Year Event
1885 Indian National Congress (INC) was founded.
1887 INC held its second session in Calcutta.
1905 Partition of Bengal led to the formation of the first extremist group within INC.
1917 Lucknow Pact was signed between the Congress and the Muslim League.
1929 INC passed the resolution for complete independence or Purna Swaraj.
1930 Gandhi launched the Salt Satyagraha movement.
1947 India gained independence from British rule and the Congress became the ruling party.
1969 Congress split into two factions, leading to the formation of Congress (O) and Congress (I).
1977 Congress lost power for the first time after the Emergency, leading to the formation of Janata Party government.
1991 Liberalization and globalization policies were introduced by the Congress-led government.

1. Formation

The INC was formed in 1885 by a group of Indian intellectuals and political leaders who sought to address Indian grievances against British colonial rule and push for greater Indian representation in the government.

2. Moderates and Extremists

During the early years of the INC, there was a division between the moderate and extremist factions. The moderates believed in working within the colonial framework to achieve their goals, while the extremists advocated for more militant and radical approaches to achieving Indian independence.

3. Gandhi's Leadership

Mahatma Gandhi became the leader of the Indian National Congress in the early 1920s and brought a new direction to the party. He advocated for non-violent civil disobedience and launched several campaigns against British rule, including the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Salt Satyagraha.

4. Independence

The Indian National Congress played a key role in the Indian independence movement, and India achieved independence in 1947.

5. Post-Independence

After independence, the INC became the dominant political party in India and ruled for several decades. However, the party has also faced challenges, including factionalism, corruption, and a loss of popular support.

6. Recent Developments

In recent years, the INC has faced increasing competition from other political parties and has struggled to maintain its position as the dominant political force in India. It has also faced criticism for its handling of several important issues, including economic development, corruption, and social inequality.

Overall, the Indian National Congress has played a significant role in Indian history, evolving over time to address changing political and social conditions. Its legacy continues to influence Indian politics and society today.

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