Jainism & Buddhism
Cause of Origin
▪ Kshatriya reacted strongly against the ritualistic dominion of brahamanas & vernas based on birth.
▪ Verdhaman Mahavira & Gautama Buddha both belonged to Kshatriya clan & disputed the
authority of brahamanas.
Rise of new Agriculture Economy
▪ Real reason was rise of new agriculture economy in north India which was based on iron ploughshare
▪ Required the use of bullocks & cattles & could not flourish without animal husbandry.
▪ But Vedic practices of killing cattles in sacrifice led to decimation of cattle wealth, against which both Jainism & Buddhism spoke & propagated the idea of ahimsa.
Earliest coins belonged to 500 BC & are known as punch marked coins, 1st used by Vaishyas / Traders. Use of punch marked coins facilitated trade & commerce, which added to importance of Vaishyas as such. Vaishyas were ranked 3
rd in verna system & were eager to improve their position, hence extended generous support to Buddhism & Jainism along with the following reasons:
- ▪ Both were not biased towards any verna system
- ▪ Both Preached the gospel of non-violence, which would put an end to the war b/w kingdoms & consequently will promote trade & commerce
- ▪ Brahmanical law book “Dharamsutras” decried lending money on interest & a person who live on interest were not held in esteem by them, hence they were eager to improve their position.
New Way of life
A strong reaction by common people against use of coins, private properties, new dwellings, new dresses, new system of transport & luxury; Hence common people yearned to go back to primitive ways of life hence supported Buddhism & Jainism which
- ▪ preferred simple, Puritan & ascetic living & asked people to forgo all good things in life
- ▪ were not allowed to touch gold & silver & were to accept as much to keep their body & soul together